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Neuroendocrinology Letters incl. Psychoneuroimmunology & Chronobiology

 

NeuroendocrinologyİLetters
ISSNİ0172ñ780X Copyrightİ©İ1997 NeuroendocrinologyİLetters

NEL Vol. 18 No. 2/3
Review Article

1998; 18:103-110
pii: NEL182397R04

 

Peptides in Processes of Learning and Memory
by Yoshimasa Yamaguchi, Seiichiro Kawashima, Hideshi Kobayashi

It is well known that transmitters such as acetylcholine (ACh), adrenaline, dopamine and serotonin are involved in the process of learning and memory (15, 27, 30, 60). In addition, the participation of hormonal peptides, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), vasopressin and cholecystokinin, in the learning and memory processes has been reported m the latter half of the 1980s (see 2, 12, 13, 31 for reviews)
We have studied the effects of several peptides on learning and memory, and observed that the results are often ambiguous or contradictory, when we do not consider carefully the following points: doses of peptides, routes of administration, kinds of tasks for evaluation of efficacy. Further, it is also important to determine the active part of the ammo acid sequence of effective peptides, locations of their receptors in the brain and the bioactivity of their analogs. Further, antagonists are useful for analysis of the mechanisms of peptide actions. In this article, we describe several experiments concerning cognitive effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), and we discuss some of the important issues mentioned above, referring the list (Table 1), summarizes recent data obtained by others on the effects of other peptides on learning and memory For more detailed descriptions of these phenomena, there are recent excellent reviews by De Wied (12) and by Kovacs and De Wied (37).

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