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Neuroendocrinology Letters, Vol. 20 Nos. 3/4 Contents
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NeuroendocrinologyİLetters incl. Psychoneuroimmunology & Chronobiology. Researh Papers.
ISSNİ0172ñ780X Copyrightİ©İ1999 NeuroendocrinologyİLetters
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NEL VOL. 20 3/4
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

1999; 20:205–213

Psychoimmuno-neuroendocrinology: an integrative approach to modern philosophy in medicine and psychology
by Peter G. Fedor-Freybergh

Key words:
psychoimmuno-neuroendocrinology, integration, continuity, cross-fertilization, butterfly effect, prevention

Abstract
The immune system is now seen to be closely integrated with other physiological circuits, such as the central nervous system (CNS) and the neuroendocrine system. There is also an increasing amount of evidence that this integrated circuit is bidirectional and both systems exert a reciprocal effect on each other. We have always stressed the interdisciplinary nature of the science where disciplines and sciences such as medicine, biochemistry, genetics, psychology, human ethology, etc. meet and undergo a process of "cross-fertilization." We also have stressed the indivisibility of the somatic and psychological processes in the indivisible continuum of human life from its very beginning and the inseparability of the development and functions of the central nervous system and the immunological and neuroendocrine processes.
     This transdisciplinary and integrative aspect of sciences and their entree in the twenty-first century is the true vision for our common efforts. Integration means also amalgamation, assimilation, blending, combining, incorporation, unification and harmony. This last mentioned, harmony, should be stressed and underlined specifically: a harmony between different views and approaches, between different methods and methodologies, different theories and practices. In order to undertake such a challenge, a new scientific theory and a common language is required, a language that would be understood across disciplines and would be able to assist in getting beyond semantic problems.
     The bridge between the immune system, neuroendocrinology and the rest of the central nervous system opens the gateway to more common understanding and acceptance across the disciplines. It is an umbrella for the endeavor that unites various scientific fields in their attempt to elucidate the processes of experience involved from the earliest stages of human life.
     This integration does cross over the different disciplines and diagnostic systems. It attaches theoretical and applied fields, basic research and clinical experience throughout the whole continuity of human life from conception and onwards. Integrated Psychoimmuno-Neuroendocrinology represents a unique opportunity for the primary prevention of psychological, emotional and physical disorders.

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