January 7, 2003

CONTENTS,  Special Issue, VOL.23 Dec 2002
VOL.22, 2001
VOL.21, 2000
VOL.20, 1999
VOL.19, 1998
VOL.18, 1997
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including Psychoneuroimmunology, Neuro
Reproductive Medicine, Chronobiology
and Human Ethology
ISSN 0172–780X

Vol. 23, December 2002

Sex Hormones Influence Human Cognitive Pattern

Sex Hormones Influence Human Cognitive Pattern       [REFERENCES]

Doreen Kimura

Submitted: August 28, 2002
Accepted: September 5, 2002

Key words:
sex hormones, cognition, spatial, verbal, motor

2002; 23(suppl 4) :6777
pii: NEL231002R07
PMID: 2496737

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The major sex differences in cognitive skills are summarized, and the role of sex hormones in early organization and possible maintenance of these differences is discussed. Using animal models and human hormonal anomalies, a good case can be made that prenatal androgens strongly influence adult cognitive pattern, though the relation between baseline androgens and spatial ability, for example, need not be linear. Moreover, men and women remain sensitive to variation in hormonal state, as evidenced in the fluctuations in cognitive and motor performance across natural diurnal, menstrual and circannual rhythms. Evidence from administration of exogenous hormones in humans is more equivocal, though this field ultimately should yield useful information.    


(For more detailed discussion of sex differences in cognition, and their putative brain mechanisms, see Kimura D. Sex and Cognition 2000; MIT Press)

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ISSN 0172–780X

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