: The diagnostic category of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has its place in the newest American diagnostic system DSM-V. The authors compare its definition with the former manual DSM-IV and the international classification ICD-10. They reflect difficulties in defining the concept of traumatic event. They summarize epidemiological findings, highlight the possible significant role of traumatogenesis in other psychiatric disorders without PTSD symptoms. The biopsychosocial model seems to be the most adequate for the study of trauma-related disorders, while in therapy the specific shaping of psychotherapy seems to be crucial. Good experiences in relationships before the trauma increase resilience and the availability of supportive empathetic relationships may favourably influence the development of the disorder and its therapy.