Positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia and their relation to depression, anxiety, hope, self-stigma and personality traits - a cross-sectional study.


  Vol. 39 (1) 2018 Neuro endocrinology letters Journal Article   2018; 39(1): 9-18 PubMed PMID:  29604619    Citation

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the investigation was to explore the relationship between positive or negative symptoms, social anxiety, hope, personality, and self-stigma in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. METHOD: 57 outpatients took part in this cross-sectional study. The structured interview M.I.N.I. International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to confirm the diagnosis. All patients completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised. The disorder severity was evaluated by Clinical Global Impression - Severity scale, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The patients were in a stabilized state that did not require hospitalization or modifications in the treatment. RESULTS: Both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia positively correlated with the length of the disorder, global severity of the disorder, the severity of the general and social anxiety symptoms, the severity of self-stigma, and negatively with personality traits Self-directedness and Cooperativeness. Only negative symptoms significantly positively correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms and personality trait Harm-avoidance and negatively with the hope and personality trait Persistence. Comorbidity with social phobia is associated with statistically significantly higher mean scores on the total score of schizophrenic symptomatology, negative subscale average rating, and general psychopathological items measured by PANSS. Patient with comorbid depression would experience a higher level of negative symptomatology than patients without such comorbidity.